Obesity surgery is a surgical procedure applied in the treatment of weight problems that cannot be treated with diet, sports and medications. Obesity surgeries are divided into different types. It is preferred in patients who have tried all treatment methods except surgery but have not been successful. Those whose body mass index is over 40 can be operated. If the body mass index is between 35-40 and the patient has an additional disease such as sleep apnoea syndrome, hypoventilation syndrome, high triglyceride levels, and fatty liver, obesity surgery may be preferred. Obesity surgery is also recommended for patients with diabetes mellitus whose blood sugar cannot be controlled with the help of medical treatments.
What are the Types of the Obesity Surgery?
There are various techniques used during obesity surgery. The doctor and the patient decide together which of these will be applied. Some of the relevant options are:
Tube Stomach Surgery
If this method is preferred, 80-90% of the patient’s stomach is removed. This operation, in which the stomach is turned into a tube, is performed within 1-2 hours with a closed method. After the operation, the patient should be fed with liquid foods for 2 weeks. For the next two weeks, only soft foods should be consumed. The transition to normal food is possible 1 month after the operation. In this method, the part of the stomach called fundus is completely removed. The release of the hormone ghrelin is prevented and appetite is reduced.
In the application of stomach balloon, a balloon filled with air or liquid is inserted into the stomach with the help of an endoscope. The operation is performed under light anaesthesia and takes 15-20 minutes. This operation, which reduces the food intake capacity of the stomach, allows the person to eat less and feel full faster. It is possible for the patient to lose 7-8 kilos in a few months. However, the balloon cannot stay in the person’s body for more than 1 year. Within this period, it should be removed by endoscopic method. After the removal of the balloon, the patient’s return to his/her old way of life and quitting the diet, of course, will lead to regaining the lost weight.
This method, which is among the types of obesity surgery, is based on the separation of the stomach into two parts. A part of the small intestine is joined together with the newly formed small stomach. During this procedure, the duodenum is by-passed. This method, which restricts calorie intake, also reduces the absorption of food consumed by patients. Gastric By-pass, which is one of the most common obesity-related surgical procedures, has high metabolic efficiency. The patient’s weight loss process can continue up to 1 and a half years. Patients may need vitamin supplements for a long time.
This surgery has an easier modification: Mini Gastric By-Pass. In this surgery, a long stomach pouch is created. The small intestine that comes 2 meters after the beginning is combined with this stomach pouch. The cost of the operation is lower and the duration is shorter. But it is very successful in losing weight and fighting diabetes mellitus.
This process has a direct effect on metabolism. It provides more weight loss. It is suitable for patients whose body mass index is found to be over 50 Kg/m2. It plays a major role in the treatment of diseases such as high cholesterol, hypertension and diabetes caused by excess weight. However, this type of surgery has two important risks: It can lead to protein and vitamin deficiencies as it reduces fat absorption, and some patients may suffer from chronic diarrhoea.